Citing examples, define and describe the character, form and contents of the Arts and Crafts garden created by the Gertrude Jekyll & Edwin Lutyens partnership.

The Arts and Crafts garden deserted the extravagant decorative style of the high Victorian. It was very much a rejection of the industrial movement as well as current styles of the time and a nostalgic step towards reapplying established types of gardens. More simplified arrangements were employed and medieval, romantic and folk styles of ornamentation were reintroduced.

Gertrude Jekyll was a very skilled woman, who was well educated and passionate about art. She met architect Edwin Lutyens around 1890 when she was 47 and he was 21. Despite him being far younger, their ideas and attitudes were similar and they worked extremely well together. He was a diligent landscape artist and she contributed her horticultural artistry by choosing what was to be planted. Lutyens designed her house at Munstead Wood so that it was the perfect setting for a garden she had already created. They continued to work together for many years and created a harmonious meeting of garden and architectural art forms.Hestercombe House & Garden, Taunton, Somerset

The Arts and Crafts garden was a symbol of economic and social improvement. Exotic plants were being introduced at this time, and hardy plants that were also exotic were better suited for the English climate than others. Generally there was an expansive terrace or walk adjacent to the house would progress to an open lawn, and the garden view would be beyond that. At Munstead, a woodland garden with seas of flowers was featured. The flower artistry included azaleas, daffodils, rhododendron and a shrub border. Jekyll was a meticulous artist and wanted the optimum colours and forms to create interest. Seasonal displays were often featured in Arts and Crafts gardens, including Hestercombe, a product of Jekyll and Lutyens partnership. Plantings differed based upon season and access to sun and shade.They integrated features from past gardens spanning several centuries. Local stones were used for steps, walls, paths, rills and a pergola that stretched across the site, rimming the edge of a part with formal design. Flowers and colorful plants chosen by Jekyll softened any harsh formalities. There was a sunken garden and panels of greenery surrounded by perennials. Seasons were also considered at Vann, in Surrey, the woodland garden swaddles a picturesque Tudor house and has cottage garden and formal components. There is a water garden additionally with small ponds encircled by exotic plants. Flowers cover the walls and it makes for a quaint, yet vividly attractive landscape setting.

http://www.gardenvisit.com/history_theory/library_online_ebooks/tom_turner_english_garden_design/nineteenth_and_twentith_century

http://www.discoverbritainmag.com/britain/gertrude_jekyll_gardens_1_3236466

Citing examples, define and describe the character, form and contents of the Arts and Crafts garden created by the Gertrude Jekyll & Edwin Lutyens partnership.

Describe the character and uses of the different urban greenspaces created in Copenhagen the 19th century and explored on our Field Study, and the ways in which these parks are relevant and beneficial to 21st century urban living.

City planners of Copenhagen have made various efforts to incorporate green space. This ample amount of green space has two functions. One is to make Copenhagen known as a green and environmentally friendly city. It is a deliberate move to create this kind of urban personality that is inviting and an enjoyable place to live. Additionally, green spaces have many advantages for Copenhagen and its residents. Among these are limiting C02 emissions, preventing polluted air, providing essential open spaces for recreation and leisure, making it more attractive and serving many social functions. There is no doubt the city of Copenhagen would not be what it is today without the green space it has. People would not have the same urban experience that is tied together by time in green space, and Danes would probably not be as happy as they are.

http://dce.au.dk/en/publications/scientific-reports/no-1-49/abstracts/no-14-urban-greenspace/

The botanical garden is a greenhouse filled with an extensive collection of exotic plants from around the world. It is impressive and informative, with each plant and its origin labeled. It functions to educate us and communicate to us about the world of plants and to fortify interest in the benefits of nature. It additionally functions as a bank for plants and a place of national and global conservation.

http://botanik.snm.ku.dk/english/Ombhm/

Orstedsparken is a public park located in the centrum of Copenhagen. Around 1868, a decision was made to reserve green space for the rapidly growing population. In 1872, a redevelopment plan was made and a few years later, in 1879, Orstedsparken was founded. It included Copenhagen’s first public playground. In the center is a lake and has small rolling hills and many trees and flowers. There are many monuments and statues, which were important to the Orsted brothers who created the park. In the Spring, many Dutch crocuses bloom on the bank of the lake in shades of blue yellow and white. People come here to take a stroll or sit on the green and bask in the sun.

http://ecstep.com/orstedsparken/

Describe the character and uses of the different urban greenspaces created in Copenhagen the 19th century and explored on our Field Study, and the ways in which these parks are relevant and beneficial to 21st century urban living.

For the three most influential designers and innovators of in the18th century English Landscape Movement – Charles Bridgeman, William Kent & ‘Capability’ Brown – write a brief paragraph to describe the style – form, layout, content, purpose – of their landscapes.

The English Landscape evolved out of changing ideology and inclination toward rejecting the distinct formality and politics of the French Baroque. Charles Bridgeman created a progressive landscape that was flexible and flowing rather than geometric and stiff. The idea of a main axis was becoming less important. He was influenced by the ideas of philosophers Locke and Addison. He wanted to create a reaction through sensory awareness. Bridgeman was a transitional phase out of Baroque, thus though it was much less manicured and high maintenance and more connected to the natural landscape. The defining attribute he created, the ha-ha, is a recessed wall that prevents unwanted intruders like animals from coming in while still borrowing the landscape beyond. In summary his gardens included direct, expansive views of the landscape, canals, greens and amphitheaters masterly integrated and weaving paths through the wood.

images

http://brookmans.com/environment/gobions/ch3.shtml

William Kent often changes Bridgeman’s work and Capability Brown’s landscape often revamps Kent’s work. William Kent was not trained in creating landscapes. He created gardens that overlaid formal paths meandering, serpentine, undulating lines. His works were considered pieces of garden theatre. He, too, was interested on how to steer people through the landscape and create choreography of sentiment. There were absolutely no straight lines and his gardens were studded with temples, grottoes and statues. His design was picturesque, not quite nature as nature intended but rather a romanticized version of nature. His gardens were used as a place for conversation about war and social rebellion.

williamkentrill_2850747c

Capability Brown decided to further loosen and soften up the landscape. The landscape of Stowe, which Bridgeman, then Kent and then Brown worked on came to signify conspicuous consumption. The garden included subtle iconography hinting at political allegiance, classical moral tales, and sexual narratives. Browns gardens were very informal, concerned with sophistication and contentment of the viewer. He was inspired by England rather than Rome. He was satisfied with a pure, united landscape that “so closely…copy nature [that] his works will be mistaken”.

http://www.capabilitybrown.org/lancelot-capability-brown

blenheim_palace_original

For the three most influential designers and innovators of in the18th century English Landscape Movement – Charles Bridgeman, William Kent & ‘Capability’ Brown – write a brief paragraph to describe the style – form, layout, content, purpose – of their landscapes.

Blog Post #5

Without simply repeating the lecture notes explain why Versailles Palace and Gardens were built, and the role they played during the rule of King Louis XIV

The Palace and Gardens of Versailles was an ordinary hunting lodge until Louis XIV decided to transform it into a sprawling, extravagant location. The radical improvement of Versailles continued throughout the life of The Sun King. It was originally intended to be his private hideaway, but its purpose evolved while it was being built. Ironically, it was first intended as a place for recreation, to host ladies in waiting and an escape from government. It includes a theatre, concert hall and pleasure grounds. It eventually became home to the royal court before gradually becoming the official residence of French royal family, court and government. The King insisted that nobles be present at court so he could make sure they stayed out of treacherous activity and remained faithful to his undisputed power. He wanted to keep watch over noblemen and control all facets of noble life.

The ethereal splendor Versailles served to affirm his divine kingship. The fact that he was responsible for creating a place so vast and unique was to show his mystic that could not be attained by any other. It signifies the widespread respect and high regard people had for him and establishes his power. The opulence of Versailles impressed the viewer and led people to admire his lavish material possessions. He wanted to show off the wealth, power and creative genius of France and make it known as the best country in Europe. The purpose of Versailles was to show the elevated, advanced status of France in relation to other nations.

Louis XIV also planned the garden to be a secure place for him. By being away from Paris, he was removed from any danger or civil uprising that was going on in the city. The fact that nobles had to be present at Versailles thwarted any opportunity to establish other powers that could pose a problem for the king. Thus, he had confined the nobles and was protected from another Frond.

http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/Versailles.aspx

Blog Post #5

Blog Post #4

How has the motivation for garden making changed throughout the period we have studied in this class?

When looking at the Roman Garden, we discovered the heightened importance of art, beauty and design in society. Perhaps the garden was a refuge from the chaos of daily life and violent gladiator matches. The concept of otium, or stepping back from obligations and entering into creative and enlightening, yet still productive leisure time, was a key inspiration for the garden. Gardens were a place to relax and a sign of affluence. Pursuing pleasurable activities, whether it is making music, writing, debating, talking or playing sports contributes to personal development and raises quality of life. The idea of spending free time in a productive manner helps to create a better individual. Roman gardens were cool, aesthetically pleasing and allowed for religious expression.

http://philosophy.about.com/od/Philosophical-Theories-Ideas/a/Otium-And-Philosophy.htm

The Medieval Garden had many objectives depending on societal class. Kings and Nobles were far too engaging to ever have religious or utilitarian gardens. Gardens were more akin to nature in that there were wild animals roaming around. Hunting, jousting and courting were popular activities for Kings and Nobles in Medieval gardens. Gardens at this time were either ornamental or productive, but were always a paradisiacal sanctuary. There was a sense of impending doom in the heavily defensive castles and architecture of the time. The monks and the lower class were roused by the functionality of gardens, both exploiting their production. The enclosed cloister gardens were primarily ornamental and often seen as a religious allegory for the Virgin Mary. Cloisters were seen as an earthly Eden for the Monks, some would say they turned into an image of the Church.

Islamic gardens had a primary motive, and their style was detailed in their religious text the Qu’ran. Religion was the principal motivation for the building of Islamic gardens. The garden was an earthly expression of paradise characteristic of what the afterlife looks like. Beauty was seen as a pious feat, both internally and externally. Meditation and self-reflection were common activities in Islamic gardens. The importance of gardens in the heated, dry climate was a place of shade, the invigorating four channels of water being the source of life. The garden was also seen, as in Roman times, as a way to improve quality of life.

The Renaissance was a time of intellectual spirit, when science meets art in geometry. The rise of humanism sparked change in art, nature and it’s religious significance. Humanists wanted to understand God & Nature, and this combined with the revival of the classics led to a whole new garden form. Classical gods and goddesses were seen in sculptures and fountains. In this more open, free society, the individualistic motif of mans ability to think and decide for himself is exhibited in garden as gardens were a form of expression for the designer. The expansive, outward sensation was a symbol of freedom and new ideas. Individual incentive for garden making did vary however by country, in Spain and Portugal, it was mainly religious, sometimes it symbolized culture or was a more architectural accomplishment.

Blog Post #4

Blog Post #3

Explain, with examples, the ways in which the Renaissance spirit of a rediscovery of the classics and the new Humanist ways of thinking were expressed in the design and content of the Italian Renaissance garden.

The Renaissance spirit of renewing Man’s relationship with God and Nature through science and bringing Classical texts back into light caused an evolution in the elements of the garden. Gardens progressed from confined medieval cloister gardens and began to become more extensive and placed in an outward fashion with a more human rather than spiritual focus. The Italian Renaissance garden was the direct result of Humanist ideology, which placed principal value on individual human beings and encouraged scientific rationale. Humanists believed Classical texts consisted of the vital moral messages used to lead a productive life. They put emphasis on education and were eager for knowledge. Ritual religious practice, for example in the Catholic Church, was unimportant to them. They wanted to understand the occurrences in the Bible.

Medieval features were translated by the classical standards of order and beauty. Architecture was emphasized and the landscape was considered when designing the garden. The Roman villa was redesigned, with terraces and a gradual descent into the courtyard. It was crucial that the view of the garden was united with the landscape. Linear perspective positions man in the middle of the perceptible field. The emphasis on perspective and calculation used in connecting house and garden translated into axes, cross axes and vistas. Converging lines meant that objects became smaller when near the vanishing point. Man moved away from viewing himself as being judged and looked down upon by God. Man became the center of everything when rendered in linear perspective, or possibly standing at the axis of a garden.

Pleasure was a paramount function of Renaissance gardens. Classical statues, fountains, topiary and hedges were featured but the statues were integrated into the architecture. Along with the expansive views and open courtyard, the Renaissance garden was a place for party, pleasure and intellectual conversation. Humanism altered interpretation of the physical world to situate man God on a more balanced level. The garden established a reflection of cultural interest by bringing together arts and sciences and placing importance on how humans experienced it.

http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/vatican/humanism.html

http://www.arthistoryspot.com/2010/02/renaissance-gardens/

https://villasophiasalon.wordpress.com/universal-symbols/

Blog Post #3

Post #2: In the three cultures we have so far studied – Roman, Mediæval and Muslim, how did /does the garden play a role in their respective religions?

In all three cultures, gardens had some religious importance. The level of significance placed on gardens as a spiritual place differs greatly between them.

The Roman society was well organized and had great appreciation for artistic form. The importance placed on artistic ability and formal influence gave way to symmetrical, manicured and aesthetically pleasing garden spaces. The lack of separation between church and state and prominence of religion in the culture meant that one of the main functions of gardens was a place of religious expression and mutual worship. Religion and art were intertwined. Gardens were a place of religious expression and activity, but by no means were they the most sacred place. The Romans viewed religion as a give and take relationship where the pious person expected something in return for worshipping the God. The church itself was obviously on a higher level, but there were a number of features indicating that gardens were a holy place to show devotion in Roman culture including shrines or aediculas, herms and statuary representation of Gods and Goddesses who were related to gardens. Venus, for example was originally a goddess of Gardens and Vineyards.

The Outer Peristyle at the Getty Villa. © 2005 Richard Ross with the courtesy of the J. Paul Getty Trust

http://blogs.getty.edu/iris/archaeologist-kathryn-gleason-on-roman-gardens/

The fall of Rome then ensued and in the “Dark Ages”, religion took over as the highest power in medieval culture. The church had a lot of money and thus gardens took a lot of different religious meanings based on ones relationship with the church. Society had a distinct hierarchy and the Kings and Nobles were focused on the pleasurable, relaxing and entertaining aspect of gardens. They were ornamental, produced fruits, grapes for wine, there were parks for hunting and herbers where courtly love would arise. Mazes were the main feature rooted in religion for those at the top of the pyramid. They were symbolic of that if you make good life choices you will end up with redemption. The Medieval Monastery had three types of gardens. The cloisters were purely religious while self-sufficient vegetable gardens were utilitarian. Cloisters represented the Garden in Eden and became simultaneous with Church imagery. Symbolism was pervasive: the four rivers coming from the center were a religious allegory and evergreen trees embodied eternal life. The enclosed Mary gardens were similar in that Mary symbolically became the garden. The white lilies represented purity, yellows were her glowing soul and red roses show her unconditional love and gratitude. The plebians gardens had a primarily functional purpose of growing vegetables and herbs because they could not afford to make ornamental gardens with religious significance.

The Cuxa Cloister and Gardens at the Cloisters Museum, New York

http://www.atasteoftravelblog.com/the-cloisters/

After the Ottomans rampantly conquered territory and spread Islam, they established the purpose of gardens as a place that reflects Paradise, what is promised in afterlife. The Qu’ran, or religious text for Muslims even described how the garden should be formed. All Islamic gardens have a religious mission, and art and religion were almost synonymous and were essentially integrated into life. The Chahar Bagh was this layout of an earthly paradise with the quadripartite forms also seen in cloisters. They represented water, wine, milk and honey. The relationship between Christianity and Islam can be seen in gardens – both emphasized water, symmetry and enclosed spaces.

http://throughtheoculus.blogspot.dk/2009/03/water-in-islamic-architecture.html

Post #2: In the three cultures we have so far studied – Roman, Mediæval and Muslim, how did /does the garden play a role in their respective religions?